Throughout the lifetime of humans, the amount of stem cells and the rate of cell proliferation continue to decrease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one among the many factors that promote stem cell aging. Both a decrease in the level of stem cells and increase in ROS production can lead to the development of different neurodegenerative diseases. This study was conducted to determine how the VGVAPG peptide, liberated from elastin during the aging process and under pathological conditions, affects ROS production and activities of antioxidant enzymes in undifferentiated, proliferating SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS). After treating the SH-SY5Y cells with VGVAPG peptide, we measured ROS production; cell metabolism, proliferation, and expression; and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). We demonstrated that the VGVAPG peptide increases GPx expression and activity, whereas it decreases CAT expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Silencing of the GLB1 gene prevents changes in GPx activity. Despite the fact that the VGVAPG peptide increases GPx expression, it increases the ROS level. Moreover, the VGVAPG peptide decreases SH-SY5Y proliferation, which is prevented by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Our data suggest that ROS production and decreased proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells are the results of excitotoxicity meditated through close unrecognized molecular pathways. More research is needed to elucidate the unknown mechanism of action of VGVAPG peptide in the nervous system.