A colon cancer growth inhibitor partially purified from the isolated cell wall membrane fraction of Chlorella sorokiniana, here referred to as Chlorella membrane factor (CMF), was evaluated for its antitumor and immunomodulatory effects in cell culture and in a colon carcinoma mouse model. The CMF treatment dose- and time-dependently inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth in 2-dimensional cultures. Treatment with CMF also significantly inhibited the growth of colon carcinoma spheroids in 3-dimensional cell culture in coculture with T lymphocytes. In a mouse CT26 colon carcinoma peritoneal dissemination model, intraperitoneal injection of CMF (10 or 30 mg dry weight/kg body weight, every other day) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the growth of tumor nodules via induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Evaluation of immune cell populations in ascites showed that CMF treatment tended to increase T lymphocytes but lower granulocyte populations. The present study suggests that the cell wall membrane fraction of Chlorella sorokiniana contains a bioactive material that inhibits colon carcinoma growth via direct cell growth inhibition and stimulation of host antitumor immunity. Hence, it is suggested that the Chlorella cell wall membrane extract or a bioactive substance in the extract is an attractive complementary medicine for cancer therapy.