LETM1 domain-containing protein 1 (LETMD1), also known as HCCR-1, is a mitochondrial protein and is known to regulate p53 and STAT3 activities in cancer cells. In this study, we present, for the first time (to our knowledge), data indicating that LETMD1 suppresses multiple immune responses in monocyte/macrophage lineage cells and mouse primary macrophages. Attenuation of LETMD1 expression with specific small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA constructs enhanced LPS-induced expressions of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. In addition, LETMD1 attenuation caused potentiation of phagocytosis as well as migration in a macrophage-like cell line, U937. These enhancing effects were associated with altered activation of signaling adaptors (such as NF-κB, MAPKs, p53, and JAK-STAT) involved in TLR4 signaling. Especially, LETMD1 selectively regulated TLR4-induced NF-κB activation via MyD88 but not via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). Attenuation of LETMD1 expression caused mitochondrial hyperpolarization and subsequent decrease in ATP production and increase in mitochondrial/cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium levels. LETMD1 attenuation also enhanced LPS-induced expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, the main producer of cellular ROS in phagocytes, through augmenting IFN regulatory factor 1. Accordingly, treatment with ROS scavenger, NOX2 suppressing agents, or calcium chelators resulted in suppression of LPS-induced cytokine production as well as NF-κB activation in cells with LETMD1 attenuation. These findings reveal a previously unknown function of LETMD1 and provide evidences showing LETMD1 negatively regulates macrophage functions by modulating mitochondrial function, subsequent ROS generation, and NF-κB activation.