• Oxysterol levels and metabolism in the course of neuroinflammation: insights from in vitro and in vivo models.

Oxysterol levels and metabolism in the course of neuroinflammation: insights from in vitro and in vivo models.

Journal of neuroinflammation (2018-03-11)
Valentin Mutemberezi, Baptiste Buisseret, Julien Masquelier, Owein Guillemot-Legris, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli

Oxysterols are cholesterol derivatives that have been suggested to play a role in inflammatory diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, or neuroinflammatory diseases. However, the effect of neuroinflammation on oxysterol levels has only been partially studied so far. We used an HPLC-MS method to quantify over ten oxysterols both in in vitro and in vivo models of neuroinflammation. In the same models, we used RT-qPCR to analyze the expression of the enzymes responsible for oxysterol metabolism. Using the BV2 microglial cell line, we explored the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced (M1-type) and IL-4-induced (M2-type) cell activation on oxysterol levels. We also used LPS-activated co-cultures of mouse primary microglia and astrocytes. In vivo, we induced a neuroinflammation by administering LPS to mice. Finally, we used a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, namely the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, that is characterized by demyelination and neuroinflammation. In vitro, we found that LPS activation induces profound alterations in oxysterol levels. Interestingly, we could discriminate between control and LPS-activated cells based on the changes in oxysterol levels both in BV2 cells and in the primary co-culture of glial cells. In vivo, the changes in oxysterol levels were less marked than in vitro. However, we found in both models increased levels of the GPR183 agonist 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol. Furthermore, we studied in vitro the effect of 14 oxysterols on the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in LPS-activated co-culture of microglia and astrocytes. We found that several oxysterols decreased the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory markers. These data demonstrate that inflammation profoundly affects oxysterol levels and that oxysterols can modulate glial cell activation. This further supports the interest of a large screening of oxysterol levels when studying the interplay between neuroinflammation and bioactive lipids.


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