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Mitochondrial permeability transition pore is involved in oxidative burst and NETosis of human neutrophils.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease (2020-01-12)
Nina Vorobjeva, Ivan Galkin, Olga Pletjushkina, Sergei Golyshev, Roman Zinovkin, Anastasia Prikhodko, Vladimir Pinegin, Irina Kondratenko, Boris Pinegin, Boris Chernyak
ABSTRACT

Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to numerous pathogenic microbes as the last suicidal resource (NETosis) in the fight against infection. Apart from the host defense function, NETs play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of NETosis is important for regulating aberrant NET release. The initiation of NETosis after the recognition of pathogens by specific receptors is mediated by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, therefore, the use of Ca2+ ionophore A23187 can be considered a semi-physiological model of NETosis. Induction of NETosis by various stimuli depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase, however, NETosis induced by Ca2+ ionophores was suggested to be mediated by ROS produced in mitochondria (mtROS). Using the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 and specific inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, we showed that both sources of ROS, mitochondria and NADPH oxidase, are involved in NETosis induced by A23187 in human neutrophils. In support of the critical role of mtROS, SkQ1-sensitive NETosis was demonstrated to be induced by A23187 in neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We assume that Ca2+-triggered mtROS production contributes to NETosis either directly (CGD neutrophils) or by stimulating NADPH oxidase. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in neutrophils treated by A23187 was revealed using the electron transmission microscopy as a swelling of the mitochondrial matrix. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the mPTP is involved in mtROS production, NETosis, and the oxidative burst induced by A23187.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
テトラメチルローダミンメチルエステルパークロレート, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
VAS2870, ≥97% (HPLC)