Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease with poor prognosis. Insights into the roles of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in diseases, particularly in cancer, have made miRNAs attractive tools and targets for novel therapeutic approaches. Methods: Here, we employed a novel chimeric peptide supramolecular nanoparticle delivery system for plectin-1 (PL-1)-targeted PDAC-specific miR-9 delivery in vitro and in pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were conducted to detect the expression pattern of eIF5A2. mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy and Western blot were carried out to determine autophagy. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to elucidate the regulatory role of miR-9/eIF5A2 axis. Results: PL-1/miR-9 nanocomplexes dramatically improve the anticancer effect of doxorubicin through downregulating eIF5A2 expression to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in PDAC therapy in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-9 directly targets the eIF5A2 transcript by binding to its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) to reduce the expression levels and the secreted protein of eIF5A2 in PDAC cells. Conclusion: PL-1/miR-9 nanoparticles can be used as a novel promising anti-cancer strategy with tumor targeting and miR-9/eIF5A2 may serve as a new potential therapeutic target for future synergic therapy against human PDAC.