Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, is expressed in bone, more specifically, the periosteum and periodontal ligaments, and plays a key role in formation and metabolism of bone tissues. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate into osteoblasts and stimulate bone repair. However, the role of periostin in hASC-mediated bone healing has not been clarified. In the current study, we examined the effect of periostin on bone healing capacity of hASCs in a critical size calvarial defect model. Recombinant periostin protein stimulated migration, adhesion, and proliferation of hASCs in vitro. Implantation of either hASCs or periostin resulted in slight, but not significant, stimulation of bone healing, whereas co-implantation of hASCs together with periostin further potentiated bone healing. In addition, the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells was significantly increased in calvarial defects by co-implantation of both hASCs and periostin. Consistently, proliferation of administered hASCs was stimulated by co-implantation with periostin in vivo. In addition, co-delivery of hASCs with periostin resulted in markedly increased numbers of CD31-positive endothelial cells and α-SMA-positive arterioles in calvarial defects. These results suggest that recombinant periostin potentiates hASC-mediated bone healing by stimulating proliferation of transplanted hASCs and angiogenesis in calvarial defects.