Bone undergoes a continual remodeling process that requires the coordinated activity of two cell types. Osteoclasts break down the bone matrix while osteoblasts deposit collagen, calcium, and phosphorous and other minerals to form new bone. The balance between the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts determines the mass and density of the bone. Many diseases of bone including osteoporosis, a common age-related phenomenon in post-menopausal women in which the bone mass has been greatly reduced, and osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle-bone disease, are likely caused by the misregulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie osteogenesis, the process by which new bone is formed is thus of critical importance.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are defined as a self-renewing population of adherent, multipotent progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into several mesenchymal cell lineages. MSC have been isolated from adult bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood and can be generated in vitro from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In defined in vitro assays, MSC have been shown to readily differentiate into lineage-specific cells that form bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and muscle tissues.
EMD Millipore’s OsteoMAX-XF Differentiation Medium is specially formulated to readily differentiate human mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic lineage (osteocytes) as assessed by alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase staining. This proprietary formulation was developed using Plasticell’s CombiCultTM, a patented, bead-based, combinatorial technology specially developed for discovery of novel stem cell differentiation protocols.
Features and Benefits
- Serum-free, xeno-free, defined medium formulation
- Rapid, robust, and highly efficient mineralization and bone nodule formation in standard tissue culture system by as early as 7 days of differentiation.
Using EMD Millipore′s OsteoMAX-XF Differentiation Media, we typically obtain 80% mature osteocytes from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Efficiency of osteogenic differentiation may vary, depending upon the source and quality of the mesenchymal stem cells and if variations to the protocol are introduced.
Storage and Stability
OsteoMAX-XF Basal Medium: (Part No. CS210596) should be stored at -20°C until ready to use. Use within four months from date of receipt. Upon thawing, the medium can be kept refrigerated at 2° to 8°C in the dark for up to 6 months.
OsteoMAX-XF Supplement (10X): (Part No. CS210597) should be stored at -20°C until ready to use. Use within four months from date of receipt. Upon thawing, add the Supplement to the Basal Medium, mix thoroughly and filter sterilize using a 0.22 um stericup filter. The filtered supplemented complete media can be stored short term at 2 to 8°C in the dark and should be used within 7 days. For long term storage, aliquot the filtered supplemented complete media into appropriate working volumes and stored at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles as it will affect activity levels.