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Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

powder, suitable for plant cell culture

MS Basal Medium
MDL number:



Quality Level


cell culture | plant: suitable

Featured Industry


storage temp.


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General description

Murashige and Skoog medium is a widely used plant tissue culture growth medium. M&S Basal Medium contains macronutrients that include high levels of nitrate and organic additives such as agar, sugars, vitamins and growth regulators. Important growth regulators frequently added to M&S include IAA (auxin/morphogen) and the Kinetin (cytokinin/cell division promoter).


Murashige and Skoog medium has been used in plant tissue culture medium for plant transformation study.

Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients, and vitamins as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962).

Media Formulation


Formulated to contain 4.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient mixtures and vitamin mixtures. Murashige and Skoog medium (M5519) contains the micronutrients and vitamins of the original classic formulation. It can be supplemented with sucrose, agar, auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


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Hazard Classifications

Eye Irrit. 2 - Ox. Sol. 3

Storage Class Code

5.1B - Oxidizing hazardous materials

WGK Germany


Flash Point F

Not applicable

Flash Point C

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

  1. Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?

    If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.

  2. How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?

    The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.

  3. What is the formulation of Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog (MS) Basal Medium?

    It is media containing the macro- and micronutrients, and vitamins.

  4. What is the difference between Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog (MS) Basal Medium and M5524, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture?

    Product M5519 is the complete medium whereas M5524 is just the basal salt medium.

  5. Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium, is on back order. Can you suggest an alternate?

    When M5519 is on backorder, you can purchase Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture (Product No. M5524) and Murashige and Skoog Vitamin Powder (Product No. M7150). You will use 4.3 g/L of M5524 (rather than 4.4 g/L of M5519) and 1 mL/L of M7150. When combined, the salt and organic content is the same as Product No. M5519.

  6. How much agar is there in Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium?

    This product does not contain any agar.

  7. Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium, has precipitates; will that affect the growth?

    Precipitates are known to occur, with time, in plant tissue culture media.  The precipitates have been analyzed.  They are composed of small pale yellow-white particles.  Analysis of precipitates indicated a predominance of iron, phosphate, and zinc.  The probable cause of the precipitates is the inevitable oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric ions and the presence of unchelated ferric ions.  When the solubility of ferric phosphate is exceeded precipitation occurs.  There are no reports of detrimental effects on growth and development in plant tissue culture due to the precipitates.

  8. Can I autoclave Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium?

    We would not suggest autoclaving the media, because a precipitate may form.  It is advisable to add pre-autoclaved water as it contains less oxygen; this reduces the likelihood of oxidation of ferrous to ferric ions.

  9. How do I find price and availability?

    There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.

  10. What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?

    Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product. 

  11. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

Fanny Ramel et al.
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Timothy O Jobe et al.
FEBS letters, 595(12), 1696-1707 (2021-05-08)
The transcriptional regulators of arsenic-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. Sulfur assimilation is tightly linked with arsenic detoxification. Here, we report that mutant alleles in the SLIM1 transcription factor are substantially more sensitive to arsenic than cadmium. Arsenic treatment caused...
Youjun Zhang et al.
Plant communications, 1(5), 100028-100028 (2020-12-29)
Although the use of stable transformation technology has led to great insight into gene function, its application in high-throughput studies remains arduous. Agro-infiltration have been widely used in species such as Nicotiana benthamiana for the rapid detection of gene expression and...
Thierry G A Lonhienne et al.
Scientific reports, 4, 5055-5055 (2014-05-24)
Growth, morphogenesis and function of roots are influenced by the concentration and form of nutrients present in soils, including low molecular mass inorganic N (IN, ammonium, nitrate) and organic N (ON, e.g. amino acids). Proteins, ON of high molecular mass...

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