Significant embryo loss remains a serious problem in pig production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in embryonic implantation and placentation. However, the potential mechanism of ROS on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell fate during the peri-implantation period has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ROS on pTr cell phenotypes and the regulatory role in cell attachment and differentiation. Herein, results showed that exogenous H2O2 inhibited pTr cell viability, arrested the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases, and increased cell apoptosis and autophagy protein light chain 3B and Beclin-1, whereas these effects were reversed by different concentrations of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) posttreatment. In addition, NAC abolished H2O2-induced autophagic flux, inhibited intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, and restored expression of genes important for mitochondrial DNA and biogenesis, cell attachment, and differentiation. NAC reversed H2O2-activated MAPK and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, analyses with pharmacological and RNA interference approaches suggested that autophagy regulated cell apoptosis and gene expression of caudal-related homeobox 2 and IL-1β. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the role of the ROS-induced autophagy in pTr cell apoptosis, attachment, and differentiation, indicating a promising target for decreasing porcine conceptus loss during the peri-implantation period.