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Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa histone deacetylases regulates somatic cell reprogramming.

Cell regeneration (London, England) (2019-06-18)
Zhiwei Luo, Xiaobing Qing, Christina Benda, Zhijian Huang, Meng Zhang, Yinghua Huang, Hui Zhang, Lulu Wang, Yiwei Lai, Carl Ward, Giacomo Volpe, Xiaofen Zhong, Baoming Qin, Qiang Zhuang, Miguel A Esteban, Wenjuan Li
ABSTRACT

Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a subfamily of HDACs with important functions in development and adult tissue homeostasis. As opposed to other HDACs, they lack catalytic function and bind transcription factors to recruit transcriptional co-regulators, mostly co-repressors such as nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR)/silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). Class IIa HDACs enhance mouse somatic cell reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by repressing the function of the pro-mesenchymal transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which is upregulated during this process. Here, we describe, using HDAC4 and 7 as examples, that class IIa HDACs exhibit nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking in reprogramming, being mostly cytoplasmic in donor fibroblasts and intermediate cells but translocating to the nucleus in iPSCs. Importantly, over-expressing a mutant form of HDAC4 or 7 that becomes trapped in the nucleus enhances the early phase of reprogramming but is deleterious afterwards. The latter effect is mediated through binding to the exogenous reprogramming factors at pluripotency loci, and the subsequent recruitment of NCoR/SMRT co-repressors. Thus, our findings uncover a context-dependent function of class IIa HDACs in reprogramming and further reinforce the idea that recruitment of co-repressors by the exogenous factors is a major obstacle for reactivating the pluripotency network in this process.

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