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  • Reduction in MLKL-mediated endosomal trafficking enhances the TRAIL-DR4/5 signal to increase cancer cell death.

Reduction in MLKL-mediated endosomal trafficking enhances the TRAIL-DR4/5 signal to increase cancer cell death.

Cell death & disease (2020-09-13)
Se-Yeon Park, Han-Hee Park, Sang-Yeong Park, Sun Mi Hong, Seongmin Yoon, Michael J Morgan, You-Sun Kim

Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is an essential molecule of necroptosis, a cell death process that is initiated by direct disruption of the plasma membrane. During necroptosis, MLKL is phosphorylated by receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3 or RIP3), and then translocates to the plasma membrane to disrupt membrane integrity. Recent data suggest that MLKL also has a RIP3-indendent function in the generation of intraluminal and extracellular vesicles (EVs), as well as in myelin sheath breakdown when promoting sciatic nerve regeneration. Here we show that depletion of MLKL enhances TRAIL-induced cell death in a RIP3-independent manner. Depletion of MLKL leads to prolonged cytotoxic signals that increase TRAIL-induced cell death. Initially, TRAIL binds to DR5 at the cell surface and is endocytosed at similar rates in MLKL-expressing and MLKL-depleted cells, eventual degradation of intracellular TRAIL by the lysosome is delayed in MLKL-depleted cells, corresponding with prolonged/enhanced intracellular signals such as p-ERK and p-p38 in these cells. Colocalization of TRAIL with the marker of early endosomes, EEA1 suggests that TRAIL is accumulated in early endosomes in MLKL-depleted cells compared to MLKL-expressing cells. This indicates that depletion of MLKL reduces receptor-ligand endosomal trafficking leading to increased TRAIL-cytotoxicity. An MLKL mutant that compromises its necroptotic function and its function in the generation of EVs was sufficient to rescue MLKL deficiency, suggesting that the N-terminal structural elements necessary for these functions are not required for the function of MLKL in the intracellular trafficking associated with regulating death receptor cytotoxicity. A reduction in MLKL expression in cancer cells would therefore be expected to result in enhanced TRAIL-induced therapeutic efficacy.

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Monoclonal Anti-Vinculin antibody produced in mouse, clone hVIN-1, ascites fluid