Microtubules are polymers of alpha/beta-tubulin participating in essential cell functions. A multistep process involving distinct molecular chaperones and cofactors produces new tubulin heterodimers competent to polymerise. In vitro cofactor A (TBCA) interacts with beta-tubulin in a quasi-native state behaving as a molecular chaperone. We have used siRNA to silence TBCA expression in HeLa and MCF-7 mammalian cell lines. TBCA is essential for cell viability and its knockdown produces a decrease in the amount of soluble tubulin, modifications in microtubules and G1 cell cycle arrest. In MCF-7 cells, cell death was preceded by a change in cell shape resembling differentiation.