The aim of our research was to study the behaviour of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on variously modified poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) foils, namely on pristine PLLA, plasma-treated PLLA, PLLA grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG), PLLA grafted with dextran (Dex), and the tissue culture polystyrene (PS) control. On these materials, the ADSCs were biochemically differentiated towards VSMCs by a medium supplemented with TGFβ1, BMP4 and ascorbic acid (i.e. differentiation medium). ADSCs cultured in a non-differentiation medium were used as a negative control. Mature VSMCs cultured in both types of medium were used as a positive control. The impact of the variously modified PLLA foils and/or differences in the composition of the medium were studied with reference to cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. We observed similar adhesion and growth of ADSCs on all PLLA samples when they were cultured in the non-differentiation medium. The differentiation medium supported the expression of specific early, mid-term and/or late markers of differentiation (i.e. type I collagen, αSMA, calponin, smoothelin, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain) in ADSCs on all tested samples. Moreover, ADSCs cultured in the differentiation medium revealed significant differences in cell growth among the samples that were similar to the differences observed in the cultures of VSMCs. The round morphology of the VSMCs indicated worse adhesion to pristine PLLA, and this sample was also characterized by the lowest cell proliferation. Culturing VSMCs in the differentiation medium inhibited their metabolic activity and reduced the cell numbers. Both cell types formed the most stable monolayer on plasma-treated PLLA and on the PS control. The behaviour of ADSCs and VSMCs on the tested PLLA foils differed according to the specific cell type and culture conditions. The suitable biocompatibility of both cell types on the tested PLLA foils seems to be favourable for vascular tissue engineering purposes.