Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Elevated fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) levels have been observed in patients with PE, however, the mechanism by which FABP4 contributes to the pathogenesis of PE remains unclear. In this study, we compared the levels of FABP4 and cytokines between 20 PE patients and 10 healthy pregnant women by using ELISA, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting, FACS). Elevated FABP4 was accompanied by regulatory T (Treg)/T helper type 17 (Th17) imbalance in PE. Knockdown of FABP4 attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production in primary macrophages. In addition, silencing of FABP4 also suppressed Th17 differentiation via paracrine signaling. Overexpression of FABP4 promoted Th17 differentiation via increasing IL-17A/IL-23 release. Reciprocally, IL-17A upregulated FABP4 and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo studies revealed that FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 ameliorated PE clinical phenotypes, the Treg/Th17 imbalance, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PE mice model. In conclusion, FABP4 facilitates inflammasome activation to induce the imbalance of Treg/Th17 in PE via forming a positive feedback with IL-17A.