We recently characterized the association between DNA damage and immunoresponse in vivo in colonic mucosa of mice infected with a Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing a genotoxin, known as typhoid toxin. In this protocol, we describe the specific steps for assessing DNA damage by the alkaline comet assay of colonic mucosal samples. The description of the comet assay protocol follows the international guidelines (Minimum Information for Reporting on the Comet Assay [Moller et al., 2020]). For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Martin et al. (2021).