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Zinc oxide nanoparticles induced oxidative stress in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

Toxicology mechanisms and methods (2014-08-21)
S Syama, P J Sreekanth, H K Varma, P V Mohanan
ABSTRACT

Engineered nanoparticles are developed for various applications in industrial, electrical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical fields due to their unique properties. Nanoparticles such as TiO(2) and ZnO are widely used in cosmetics for UV protection. The toxicological investigations of ZnO NPs are highly recommended because of the increasing use in various industrial and consumer products. The toxic potential of ZnO NPs was assumed to be caused by the release of free Zn+ ions in the medium. Many of the in vivo studies suggest the toxic nature of ZnO NPs, the in vitro studies are certainly important to elucidate the mechanism of toxicity. This study examined the toxicity of ZnO NPs with the average size of 6-8 nm on the isolated mice bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The study focuses on the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated cellular responses upon exposure to ZnO NPs. The results indicated that the exposure to ZnO NPs significantly affects cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be the mechanism of cellular toxicity. The release of Zn(+) ions from the nanoparticles, due to the instability of ZnO NPs in the acidic compartment of lysosomes, also increases the ROS generation. In addition to increased ROS production, damage of lysosomal membrane and the activation of executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7 were observed, which eventually ends in apoptosis.

MATERIALS
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