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  • DNA methylation at hepatitis B viral integrants is associated with methylation at flanking human genomic sequences.

DNA methylation at hepatitis B viral integrants is associated with methylation at flanking human genomic sequences.

Genome research (2015-02-06)
Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Ritsuko Oikawa, Minoru Toyota, Masakazu Yamamoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Shinji Tanaka, Shigeki Arii, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi, Kazuhiko Koike, Fumio Itoh
ABSTRACT

Integration of DNA viruses into the human genome plays an important role in various types of tumors, including hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular details and clinical impact of HBV integration on either human or HBV epigenomes are unknown. Here, we show that methylation of the integrated HBV DNA is related to the methylation status of the flanking human genome. We developed a next-generation sequencing-based method for structural methylation analysis of integrated viral genomes (denoted G-NaVI). This method is a novel approach that enables enrichment of viral fragments for sequencing using unique baits based on the sequence of the HBV genome. We detected integrated HBV sequences in the genome of the PLC/PRF/5 cell line and found variable levels of methylation within the integrated HBV genomes. Allele-specific methylation analysis revealed that the HBV genome often became significantly methylated when integrated into highly methylated host sites. After integration into unmethylated human genome regions such as promoters, however, the HBV DNA remains unmethylated and may eventually play an important role in tumorigenesis. The observed dynamic changes in DNA methylation of the host and viral genomes may functionally affect the biological behavior of HBV. These findings may impact public health given that millions of people worldwide are carriers of HBV. We also believe our assay will be a powerful tool to increase our understanding of the various types of DNA virus-associated tumorigenesis.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-Thyroxine sodium salt pentahydrate, ≥98% (HPLC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Thyroxine sodium salt pentahydrate, γ-irradiated, powder, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
6-Maleimidohexanoic acid, ≥98.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
6-Maleimidohexanoic acid, 90% (GC)
USP
Levothyroxine, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard