Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an emerging treatment for heart failure. We have reported that epicardial placement of MSC-sheets generated using temperature-responsive dishes markedly increases donor MSC survival and augments therapeutic effects in an acute myocardial infarction (MI) model, compared to intramyocardial (IM) injection. This study aims to expand this knowledge for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy, which is likely to be more difficult to treat due to mature fibrosis and chronically stressed myocardium. Four weeks after MI, rats underwent either epicardial MSC-sheet placement, IM MSC injection, or sham treatment. At day 28 after treatment, the cell-sheet group showed augmented cardiac function improvement, which was associated with over 11-fold increased donor cell survival at both days 3 and 28 compared to IM injection. Moreover, the cell-sheet group showed improved myocardial repair, in conjunction with amplified upregulation of a group of reparative factors. Furthermore, by comparing with our own previous data, this study highlighted similar dynamics and behavior of epicardially placed MSCs in acute and chronic stages after MI, while the acute-phase myocardium may be more responsive to the stimuli from donor MSCs. These proof-of-concept data encourage further development of the MSC-sheet therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy toward clinical application.