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Protective effect of two yeast based feed additives on pigs chronically exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

Toxins (2014-12-24)
Alexandra C Weaver, M Todd See, Sung Woo Kim
ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

USP
Retinyl acetate, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard, solution of retinyl acetate (vitamin A) in peanut oil
Supelco
Cyanocobalamin, pharmaceutical secondary standard, certified reference material
Supelco
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Creatinine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Menadione, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Cholecalciferol for system suitability, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Riboflavin for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Cyanocobalamin, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Assay Standard
Supelco
(±)-α-Tocopherol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
(±)-α-Tocopherol, synthetic, ≥96% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
(±)-α-Tocopherol, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Cyanocobalamin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
α-Tocopherol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Retinol acetate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Menadione, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Menadione, meets USP testing specifications
Menadione, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Creatine, anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Deoxynivalenol
Sigma-Aldrich
Hematoxylin, certified by the Biological Stain Commission
Sigma-Aldrich
Menadione, crystalline
Sigma-Aldrich
(+)-α-Tocopherol, Type VI, from vegetable oil, liquid (≥0.88M based on potency, density and molecular wt.), BioReagent, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥1000 IU/g
Sigma-Aldrich
Cyanocobalamin, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Cyanocobalamin, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Sigma-Aldrich
α-Tocopherol, ≥95.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Alanine, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Hematoxylin
Supelco
Cyanocobalamin (B12), analytical standard
Supelco
Riboflavin (B2), analytical standard
SAFC
Cholesterol, Plant-Derived, SyntheChol®, NF, Ph. Eur., JP