Utilization of energy-dense lipid fuels is critical to the rapid development and growth of neonates. To increase efficiency of milk fat utilization by newborn pigs, the effect of clofibrate on in vivo and in vitro long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation was evaluated. Newborn male pigs were administered 5 mL of vehicle (2% Tween 80) with or without clofibrate (75 mg/kg body weight) once daily via i.g. gavage for 4 d. Total LCFA oxidative capacity was measured in respiration chambers after gastric infusion (n = 5 per treatment) with isoenergetic amounts of [1-(14)C]triglycerides (TGs), either oleic acid (18:1n-9) TG [3.02 mmol/kg body weight (BW)(0.75)] or erucic acid (22:1n-9) TG (2.46 mmol/kg BW(0.75)). Total expired (14)CO2 was collected and quantified at 20-min intervals over 24 h. Hepatic in vitro LCFA oxidation was determined simultaneously using [1-(14)C]oleic acid and erucic acid substrates. The in vivo 24-h accumulative [1-(14)C]TG oxidation (percentage of energy intake/kg BW(0.75)) tended to increase with clofibrate supplementation (P = 0.10), although there was no difference in the peak or mean utilization rate. The maximal extent of oleic acid TG oxidation was 1.6-fold that of erucic acid TG (P < 0.006). Hepatic in vitro LCFA oxidation increased 61% with clofibrate (P < 0.0008). The increase in mitochondria was 4-fold greater than in peroxisomes. The relative abundance of mRNA increased 2- to 3-fold for hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and its target genes (fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase) in the pigs that were administered clofibrate (P < 0.04). Clofibrate may improve in vivo LCFA oxidative utilization in neonatal pigs.