Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are a diverse family of protein-based organelles composed of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell. The function of bacterial MCPs is to optimize metabolic pathways by confining toxic and/or volatile metabolic intermediates. About 20% of bacteria produce MCPs, and there are at least seven different types. Different MCPs vary in their encapsulated enzymes, but all have outer shells composed of highly conserved proteins containing bacterial microcompartment domains. Many organisms have genes encoding more than one type of MCP, but given the high homology among shell proteins, it is uncertain whether multiple MCPs can be functionally expressed in the same cell at the same time. In these studies, we examine the regulation of the 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) utilization (Pdu) and ethanolamine utilization (Eut) MCPs in Salmonella. Studies showed that 1,2-PD (shown to induce the Pdu MCP) represses transcription of the Eut MCP and that the PocR regulatory protein is required. The results indicate that repression of the Eut MCP by 1,2-PD is needed to prevent detrimental mixing of shell proteins from the Eut and Pdu MCPs. Coexpression of both MCPs impaired the function of the Pdu MCP and resulted in the formation of hybrid MCPs composed of Eut and Pdu MCP components. We also show that plasmid-based expression of individual shell proteins from the Eut MCP or the β-carboxysome impaired the function of Pdu MCP. Thus, the high conservation among bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain shell proteins is problematic for coexpression of the Eut and Pdu MCPs and perhaps other MCPs as well. Bacterial MCPs are encoded by nearly 20% of bacterial genomes, and almost 40% of those genomes contain multiple MCP gene clusters. In this study, we examine how the regulation of two different MCP systems (Eut and Pdu) is integrated in Salmonella. Our findings indicate that 1,2-PD (shown to induce the Pdu MCP) represses the Eut MCP to prevent detrimental mixing of Eut and Pdu shell proteins. These findings suggest that numerous organisms which produce more than one type of MCP likely need some mechanism to prevent aberrant shell protein interactions.