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Correlates of virulence in a frog-killing fungal pathogen: evidence from a California amphibian decline.

The ISME journal (2014-12-17)
Jonah Piovia-Scott, Karen Pope, S Joy Worth, Erica Bree Rosenblum, Thomas Poorten, Jeanine Refsnider, Louise A Rollins-Smith, Laura K Reinert, Heather L Wells, Dan Rejmanek, Sharon Lawler, Janet Foley
ABSTRACT

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused declines and extinctions in amphibians worldwide, and there is increasing evidence that some strains of this pathogen are more virulent than others. While a number of putative virulence factors have been identified, few studies link these factors to specific epizootic events. We documented a dramatic decline in juvenile frogs in a Bd-infected population of Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) in the mountains of northern California and used a laboratory experiment to show that Bd isolated in the midst of this decline induced higher mortality than Bd isolated from a more stable population of the same species of frog. This highly virulent Bd isolate was more toxic to immune cells and attained higher density in liquid culture than comparable isolates. Genomic analyses revealed that this isolate is nested within the global panzootic lineage and exhibited unusual genomic patterns, including increased copy numbers of many chromosomal segments. This study integrates data from multiple sources to suggest specific phenotypic and genomic characteristics of the pathogen that may be linked to disease-related declines.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ≥99%, PCR Reagent, contains amylenes as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%, contains amylenes as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, ≥99%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, contains amylenes as stabilizer, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Supelco
Chloroform, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.8%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer