Calcium ions play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, but molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms of calcium ion action in the uterine endometrium are not fully understood in pigs. Previously, we have shown that calcium regulatory molecules, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 5 (TRPV6) and calbindin-D9k (S100G), are expressed in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in a pregnancy status- and stage-specific manner, and that estrogen of conceptus origin increases endometrial TRPV6 expression. However, regulation of S100G expression in the uterine endometrium and conceptus expression of S100G has been not determined during early pregnancy. Thus, we investigated regulation of S100G expression by estrogen and interleukin-1β (IL1B) in the uterine endometrium and conceptus expression of S100G during early pregnancy in pigs. We obtained uterine endometrial tissues from day (D) 12 of the estrous cycle and treated with combinations of steroid hormones, estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4), and increasing doses of IL1B. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that E2 and IL1B increased S100G mRNA levels in the uterine endometrium, and conceptuses expressed S100G mRNA during early pregnancy, as determined by RT-PCR analysis. To determine if endometrial expression of S100G mRNA during the implantation period was affected by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedure, we compared S100G mRNA levels in the uterine endometrium from gilts with SCNT-derived conceptuses with those from gilts with conceptuses derived from natural mating on D12 of pregnancy. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of S100G mRNA in the uterine endometrium from gilts carrying SCNT-derived conceptuses was significantly lower than those from gilts carrying conceptuses derived from natural mating. These results showed that S100G expression in the uterine endometrium was regulated by estrogen and IL1B of conceptus origin, and affected by the SCNT procedure during early pregnancy. These suggest that conceptus signals regulate S100G, an intracellular calcium transport protein, for the establishment of pregnancy in pigs.