The nutritional plane and composition during fetal life can impact upon growth and epigenetic regulation of genes affecting pancreatic β-cell development and function. However, it is not clear whether β-cell development can be altered by nutritional factors or growth rate after birth. We therefore investigated the effect of neonatal nutritional supplements on growth, glucose tolerance, and pancreatic development in lambs. Newborn lambs were randomized to daily nutritional supplements, calculated to increase macronutrient intake to a similar degree as human breast milk fortifier, or an equivalent volume of water, for 2 wk while continuing to suckle ewe milk. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at 4 mo of age, and pancreata collected for molecular analysis. Supplemented lambs had slower weight gain than controls. In supplemented lambs, insulin response to IVGTT was increased in males but decreased in females, compared to same sex controls, and was unrelated to growth rate. mRNA expression of key genes in β-cell development showed sexually dimorphic effects. Epigenetic change occurred in the promotor region of PDX1 gene with decreased suppression and increased activation marks in supplemented lambs of both sexes. Nutritional interventions in early life have long-term, sex-specific effects on pancreatic function.