Timolol maleate salt

≥98% (TLC), powder

Timolol hydrogen maleate, S-(−)-1-(t-Butylamino)-3-[(4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)oxy]-2-propanol maleate salt
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C13H24N4O3S · C4H4O4
Número de CAS:
Peso molecular:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
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Quality Level


≥98% (TLC)



optical activity

[α]25/D -5.4°, c = 4.9 in 1 M HCl(lit.)


white to off-white


202-203 °C (lit.)


H2O: soluble
ethanol: soluble

ε (extinction coefficient)

8,700 at 294 nm at 1 M


Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, U.S.

SMILES string




InChI key


Gene Information

human ... ADRB1(153), ADRB2(154), ADRB3(155)

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Timolol maleate has been used as an adrenergic β-blocker for evaluating cardiovascular functions in mice5. It has also been used for evaluating the uptake of 86Rb+ in rat cardiomyocytes6.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Timolol maleate is a class II anti-arrhythmic agent that functions as a non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist, a vasodilator and an anti-glaucoma agent. Studies have reported that timolol maleate can be used for the treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH)7.

Features and Benefits

This compound was developed by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, U.S.. To browse the list of other pharma-developed compounds and Approved Drugs/Drug Candidates, click here.
This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

Preparation Note

Timolol maleate is soluble in ethanol and water.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC


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Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


G C Chiou et al.
Journal of ocular pharmacology, 8(3), 183-190 (1992-01-01)
An ocular hypertensive rabbit eye model was used to study the effect of L- and D-timolol on retinal and choroidal blood flow. Ocular hypertension was induced artificially by raising the intraocular pressure to 40 mmHg which reduced the ocular blood...
Ajith Chakkittakandiyil et al.
Pediatric dermatology, 29(1), 28-31 (2011-12-14)
Therapeutic options for superficial infantile hemangiomas (IH) are limited. Recently, timolol maleate gel, a topical nonselective beta-blocker, has been reported as a potentially effective treatment for superficial IH. This study is an extension of a previously published pilot study designed...
Jin-Wei Cheng et al.
PloS one, 7(9), e45079-e45079 (2012-10-03)
The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of...
A Tomidokoro et al.
Current eye research, 18(5), 381-390 (1999-06-18)
To evaluate the effects of topical carteolol or timolol on tissue circulation in the iris and posterior choroid. After a topical instillation of 20 microl of 2% carteolol, 0.5% timolol, or physiological saline (for control) into one eye, and physiological...
M Gallarate et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 440(2), 126-134 (2012-10-20)
After an initial screening of ingredients and production methods, nanoemulsions for ocular administration of timolol containing the drug as maleate (TM) or as ion-pair with AOT (TM/AOT) were prepared. The physico-chemical characterization of nanoemulsions, regarding mean diameter, pH, zeta potential...

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