Tentoxin from Alternaria tenuis

Naturally occurring phytotoxic cyclic tetrapeptide

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
Número de CAS:
Peso molecular:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
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Quality Level


≥95% (HPLC)

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


General description

Tentoxin is a majorly occurring cyclic tetrapeptide mycotoxin that is excreted by the Alternaria fungal species like Alternaria alternata and Alternaria tenuis.


1 mg in glass bottle
250 μg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Tentoxin is phytotoxic, which induces chlorosis in plant leaves and germinating seedlings. It also halts photophosphorylation by inhibiting chloroplastic ATP synthase. Tentoxin over energizes thylakoids and is converted to isotentoxin by UV irradiation.
It induces chlorosis in germinating seedlings of many dicotyledonous plants. Tentoxin has been postulated to inhibit cyclic photophosphorylation by acting as an energy transfer inhibitor at the terminal steps of ATP synthesis and to target the F1 moiety of photosynthetic H+-ATPases. A kinetic analysis of the action of tentoxin on the chloroplast F1 H+-ATPase (CF1) portion of chloroplast ATP synthase has been reported.

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


Flash Point F

Not applicable

Flash Point C

Not applicable

Inhibition of photophosphorylation by tentoxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide.
C J Arntzen
Biochimica et biophysica acta, 283(3), 539-542 (1972-12-14)
Jingfeng Lou et al.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 18(5), 5891-5935 (2013-05-24)
Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites...
Alternaria mycotoxins in food and feed: an overview
Escriva L, et al.
Journal of Food Quality, 2017 (2017)
Stephen O Duke et al.
Toxins, 3(8), 1038-1064 (2011-11-10)
Some of the most potent phytotoxins are synthesized by microbes. A few of these share molecular target sites with some synthetic herbicides, but many microbial toxins have unique target sites with potential for exploitation by the herbicide industry. Compounds from...
Jérôme Santolini et al.
Biochemistry, 41(19), 6008-6018 (2002-05-08)
The mechanism of inhibition and reactivation of chloroplast ATP-synthase by the fungal cyclotetrapeptide tentoxin was investigated by photolabeling experiments, binding studies, and kinetic analysis using synthetic analogues of tentoxin. The alpha-subunit of chloroplast F(1)-ATPase (CF(1)) was specifically labeled by a...

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