Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Sulfurtransferases 1 and 2 play essential roles in embryo and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Sulfurtransferases 1 and 2 play essential roles in embryo and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2010-12-30)
Guohong Mao, Ruigang Wang, Yuefeng Guan, Yidong Liu, Shuqun Zhang
ABSTRACT

Sulfurtransferases (STRs) catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from a donor to a suitable acceptor molecule. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 20 putative STR proteins. The biological functions of most are unclear. We found that STR1 and STR2 play important roles in embryo/seed development. Mutation of STR1 alone resulted in a shrunken seed phenotype, although growth and development of vegetative and reproductive organs were not affected. The shrunken seed phenotype was associated with the delayed/arrested embryo development, in most cases, at the heart stage. The embryo defect of str1 mutant is not fully penetrant. Approximately 12.5% of embryos developed further and formed normal looking seeds. In severely shrunken seeds, no embryo could be identified after seed collection. Partially shrunken seeds that contained viable embryos could still germinate. However, cotyledons of the seedlings from such seeds were abnormal. An STR1-GUS fusion reporter revealed that the STR1 gene was universally expressed, with high levels of expression in specific tissues/organs including embryos. The incomplete penetrance of str1 embryo/seed phenotype is a result of functional STR2. Single str2 mutant had no phenotype. However, no str1(-/-)/str2(-/-) double mutant embryos were able to develop past the heart stage. Furthermore, STR2 is haplo-insufficient in str1 mutant background, and str1(-/-)/str2(+/-) embryos were 100% lethal. These data provide new insights into the biological functions of the ubiquitous sulfurtransferase in Arabidopsis embryogenesis and seed development.