Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) is a stress-inducible chaperone that facilitates cancer development by its proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions. The OGX-427 antisense oligonucleotide against HSP27 has been reported to be beneficial against idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here we show that OGX-427 is effective in two murine models of thrombopoietin- and JAKV617F-induced myelofibrosis. OGX-427 limits disease progression and is associated with a reduction in spleen weight, in megakaryocyte expansion and, for the JAKV617F model, in fibrosis. HSP27 regulates the proliferation of JAK2V617F-positive cells and interacts directly with JAK2/STAT5. We also show that its expression is increased in both CD34+ circulating progenitors and in the serum of patients with JAK2-dependent myeloproliferative neoplasms with fibrosis. Our data suggest that HSP27 plays a key role in the pathophysiology of myelofibrosis and represents a new potential therapeutic target for patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms.