Nitric oxide alters hyaluronan deposition by airway smooth muscle cells.

PloS one (2018-07-03)
Alana K Majors, Ritu Chakravarti, Lisa M Ruple, Rachel Leahy, Dennis J Stuehr, Mark Lauer, Serpil C Erzurum, Allison Janocha, Mark A Aronica

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is known to cause changes in the extracellular matrix, including changes in hyaluronan (HA) deposition. However, little is known about the factors that modulate its deposition or the potential consequences. Asthmatics with high levels of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are characterized by greater airway reactivity and greater evidence of airway inflammation. Based on these data and our previous work we hypothesized that excessive NO promotes the pathologic production of HA by airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Exposure of cultured SMCs to various NO donors results in the accumulation of HA in the form of unique, cable-like structures. HA accumulates rapidly after exposure to NO and can be seen as early as one hour after NO treatment. The cable-like HA in NO-treated SMC cultures supports the binding of leukocytes. In addition, NO produced by murine macrophages (RAW cells) and airway epithelial cells also induces SMCs to produce HA cables when grown in co-culture. The modulation of HA by NO appears to be independent of soluble guanylate cyclase. Taken together, NO-induced production of leukocyte-binding HA by SMCs provides a new potential mechanism for the non-resolving airway inflammation in asthma and suggests a key role of non-immune cells in driving the chronic inflammation of the submucosa. Modulation of NO, HA and the consequent immune cell interactions may serve as potential therapeutic targets in asthma.

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S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine, ≥97%, powder
L-Penicillamine, 99%