Osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-treat infection that regularly involves prolonged use of systemic antibiotics. Dalbavancin has demonstrated activity against Gram-positive isolates, and has been considered as a candidate for the treatment of osteomyelitis in adults and children. This study evaluated the activity of dalbavancin against pathogens isolated from bone and joint infections (BJI). Eight hundred and one Staphylococcus aureus, 160 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 164 β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS), 82 Enterococcus faecalis and 45 viridans group streptococci (VGS) causing BJI were collected consecutively (2011-2016) and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods. S. aureus (64.0%) was the most common pathogen associated with BJI, followed by BHS (13.1%) and CoNS (12.8%). All S. aureus (33.3% meticillin-resistant) isolates were susceptible to dalbavancin, linezolid and vancomycin, while daptomycin and clindamycin showed susceptibility rates of 99.5% and 89.0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results for dalbavancin were at least eight-fold lower than these comparators against all S. aureus. Dalbavancin was the most potent agent against CoNS (63.1% meticillin-resistant), followed by daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. All E. faecalis isolates were inhibited by dalbavancin at ≤0.25 mg/L (US Food and Drug Administration susceptibility breakpoint), except for three vancomycin-resistant isolates. High susceptibility rates for ampicillin (98.8%), daptomycin (100.0%), linezolid (100.0%) and vancomycin (95.1%) were obtained against E. faecalis. Dalbavancin was very active against BHS (MIC90 ≤0.03 µg/mL), and was the most active agent against VGS (highest MIC ≤0.06 mg/L). Ceftriaxone, daptomycin and vancomycin were also active (93.3-100.0% susceptible) against VGS, whereas clindamycin (84.4% susceptible) had marginal activity. Dalbavancin appears to be a viable candidate for treating BJI/osteomyelitis caused by Gram-positive cocci.
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