Here, we report a single-cell DNA replication sequencing method, scRepli-seq, a genome-wide methodology that measures copy number differences between replicated and unreplicated DNA. Using scRepli-seq, we demonstrate that replication-domain organization is conserved among individual mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Differentiated mESCs exhibited distinct profiles, which were also conserved among cells. Haplotype-resolved scRepli-seq revealed similar replication profiles of homologous autosomes, while the inactive X chromosome was clearly replicated later than its active counterpart. However, a small degree of cell-to-cell replication-timing heterogeneity was present, which was smallest at the beginning and the end of S phase. In addition, developmentally regulated domains were found to deviate from others and showed a higher degree of heterogeneity, thus suggesting a link to developmental plasticity. Moreover, allelic expression imbalance was found to strongly associate with replication-timing asynchrony. Our results form a foundation for single-cell-level understanding of DNA replication regulation and provide insights into three-dimensional genome organization.