Extracellular matrix mechanical cues regulate lipid metabolism through Lipin-1 and SREBP.

Nature cell biology (2019-02-06)
Patrizia Romani, Irene Brian, Giulia Santinon, Arianna Pocaterra, Matteo Audano, Silvia Pedretti, Samuel Mathieu, Mattia Forcato, Silvio Bicciato, Jean-Baptiste Manneville, Nico Mitro, Sirio Dupont

Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical cues have powerful effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Here, starting from an unbiased metabolomics approach, we identify synthesis of neutral lipids as a general response to mechanical signals delivered by cell-matrix adhesions. Extracellular physical cues reverberate on the mechanical properties of the Golgi apparatus and regulate the Lipin-1 phosphatidate phosphatase. Conditions of reduced actomyosin contractility lead to inhibition of Lipin-1, accumulation of SCAP/SREBP to the Golgi apparatus and activation of SREBP transcription factors, in turn driving lipid synthesis and accumulation. This occurs independently of YAP/TAZ, mTOR and AMPK, and in parallel to feedback control by sterols. Regulation of SREBP can be observed in a stiffened diseased tissue, and contributes to the pro-survival activity of ROCK inhibitors in pluripotent stem cells. We thus identify a general mechanism centered on Lipin-1 and SREBP that links the physical cell microenvironment to a key metabolic pathway.

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