This research investigated the distribution and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) bound to particulate matter (PM) emitted from open burning of rice straw (RS) into the atmosphere in the north of Vietnam. The experiments were conducted to collect PM2.5 and total suspended particulates (TSP) prior to and during burning in the period of 2016-2018 in suburban areas of Hanoi. Nine PAHs and 18 NPAHs were determined using the HPLC-FL system. The results showed that the proportion of RS burning seasonally affects the variation of PAHs emission in atmospheric environment. The levels of nine PAHs from RS burning were 254.4 ± 87.8 µg g-1 for PM2.5 and 209.7 ± 89.5 µg g-1 for TSP. We observed the fact that, although fluoranthene (Flu) was the most abundant PAH among detected PAHs both in PM2.5 and TSP, the enrichment of Flu in TSP from burning smoke was higher than that in PM2.5 while the contribution of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and indeno[1,2,3- cd]pyrene (IDP) in PM2.5 from burning smoke were much higher than those in TSP. This research found that 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) emit from RS burning with the same range with those from wood burning. The 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP) released from RS burning as the secondary NPAHs. This research provides a comprehensive contribution characterization of PAHs and NPAHs in PM with different size emitted from traditional local rice straw burning in the north of Vietnam. The results help to clarify the environmental behavior of toxic organic compounds from RS burning in Southeast Asia.