A β-cyclodextrin-functionalized magnetic zinc-metal organic framework (M-MOF/β-CD) was synthesized via a facile one-pot reaction. M-MOF/β-CD was used as a magnetic porous absorbent for the extraction and determination of prochloraz and three triazole fungicides in vegetable samples. M-MOF/β-CD was prepared by creating MOF layers on the surface of a Fe3O4-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite and bonding them with β-CD molecules. Characterization suggested that a 3D porous structure was formed, with M-MOF/β-CD exhibiting high superparamagnetism and a large surface area. As a new strategy, integrating MOFs with Fe3O4-GO could improve their water-resistance and mechanical strength by providing a rigid nanosupport interface. Combining M-MOF and β-CD resulted in excellent selective adsorption capacities for prochloraz and three triazole fungicides. The static adsorption process was evaluated and the results were in good agreement with the Freundlich model. Subsequently, M-MOF/β-CD was applied to extracting prochloraz and triazole fungicides from tomato and lettuce vegetables, followed by HPLC-MS/MS determination. The limits of detection for the above fungicides were found to be 0.25-1.0 μg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, with spiked recoveries of 74.13%-119.83%, indicating that M-MOF/β-CD was promising for application to the extraction and determination of fungicides in complex matrices.