Rapid screening for lipid storage disorders using biochemical markers. Expert center data and review of the literature.

Molecular genetics and metabolism (2018-01-02)
M Voorink-Moret, S M I Goorden, A B P van Kuilenburg, F A Wijburg, J M M Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, F S Beers-Stet, A Zoetekouw, W Kulik, C E M Hollak, F M Vaz
RESUMEN

In patients suspected of a lipid storage disorder (sphingolipidoses, lipidoses), confirmation of the diagnosis relies predominantly on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and genetic studies. New UPLC-MS/MS methods have been developed to measure lysosphingolipids and oxysterols, which, combined with chitotriosidase activity may represent a rapid first tier screening for lipid storage disorders. A lysosphingolipid panel consisting of lysoglobotriaosylceramide (LysoGb3), lysohexosylceramide (LysoHexCer: both lysoglucosylceramide and lysogalactosylceramide), lysosphingomyelin (LysoSM) and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 (LysoSM-509) was measured in control subjects and plasma samples of predominantly untreated patients affected with lipid storage disorders (n=74). In addition, the oxysterols cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in a subset of these patients (n=36) as well as chitotriosidase activity (n=43). A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the usefulness of these biochemical markers. Specific elevations of metabolites, i.e. without overlap between controls and other lipid storage disorders, were found for several lysosomal storage diseases: increased LysoSM levels in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type A/B), LysoGb3 levels in males with classical phenotype Fabry disease and LysoHexCer (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide/lysogalactosylceramide) in Gaucher and Krabbe diseases. While elevated levels of LysoSM-509 and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol did not discriminate between Niemann Pick disease type C and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio was specifically elevated in Niemann-Pick disease type C. In Gaucher disease type I, mild increases in several lysosphingolipids were found including LysoGb3 with levels in the range of non-classical Fabry males and females. Chitotriosidase showed specific elevations in symptomatic Gaucher disease, and was mildly elevated in all other lipid storage disorders. Review of the literature identified 44 publications. Most findings were in line with our cohort. Several moderate elevations of biochemical markers were found across a wide range of other, mainly inherited metabolic, diseases. Measurement in plasma of LysoSLs and oxysterols by UPLC-MS/MS in combination with activity of chitotriosidase provides a useful first tier screening of patients suspected of lipid storage disease. The LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio is a promising parameter in Niemann-Pick disease type C. Further studies in larger groups of untreated patients and controls are needed to improve the specificity of the findings.

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Avanti
5α,6β-dihydroxycholestanol, Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, powder
Avanti
7-ketocholesterol-d7, 3β-hydroxy-5-cholestene-7-one-d7, powder
Avanti
5α,6β-dihydroxycholestanol-d7, cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol-d7, powder