Single-Cell Atlas Reveals Complexity of the Immunosuppressive Microenvironment of Initial and Recurrent Glioblastoma.

Frontiers in immunology (2020-05-28)
Weilun Fu, Wenjing Wang, Hao Li, Yuming Jiao, Ran Huo, Zihan Yan, Jie Wang, Shuo Wang, Jiangfei Wang, Dexi Chen, Yong Cao, Jizong Zhao

The Glioblastoma (GBM) immune microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor development, progression, and prognosis. A comprehensive understanding of the intricate milieu and its interactions remains unclear, and single-cell analysis is crucially needed. Leveraging mass cytometry (CyTOF), we analyzed immunocytes from 13 initial and three recurrent GBM samples and their matched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pPBMCs). Using a panel of 30 markers, we provide a high-dimensional view of the complex GBM immune microenvironment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and polychromatic immunofluorescence were used for verification of the key findings. In the initial and recurrent GBMs, glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) constituted 59.05 and 27.87% of the immunocytes, respectively; programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) demonstrated different expression levels in the GAMs among the patients. GAMs could be subdivided into different subgroups with different phenotypes. Both the exhausted T cell and regulatory T (Treg) cell percentages were significantly higher in tumors than in pPBMCs. The natural killer (NK) cells that infiltrated into the tumor lesions expressed higher levels of CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), as these cells expressed lower levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ). The immune microenvironment in the initial and recurrent GBMs displayed similar suppressive changes. Our study confirmed that GAMs, as the dominant infiltrating immunocytes, present great inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity and that GAMs, increased exhausted T cells, infiltrating Tregs, and nonfunctional NK cells contribute to local immune suppressive characteristics. Recurrent GBMs share similar immune signatures with the initial GBMs except the proportion of GAMs decreases.

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Phosphate Buffered Saline, pH 7.2, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
Dulbecco′s Phosphate Buffered Saline, Modified, without calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture
Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium - high glucose, With 4500 mg/L glucose, L-glutamine, and sodium bicarbonate, without sodium pyruvate, liquid, sterile-filtered, suitable for cell culture