A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Erythrophleum fordii Oliv. has led to the isolation of three new cassaine-type diterpenoids, erythrofordin A (1), erythrofordin B (2) and erythrofordin C (3), as well as a norcassaine diterpenoid with a novel skeleton, norerythrofordin A (4), and 27 known compounds (5-31). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Selected compounds from this plant were examined for anti-inflammatory activity. Taraxerol (16) displayed potent NO-reducing activity in microglial cells, and gallic acid (27) exhibited excellent DPPH radical-scavenging effects.