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  • Urine Tenofovir Concentrations Correlate With Plasma and Relate to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Adherence: A Randomized, Directly Observed Pharmacokinetic Trial (TARGET Study).

Urine Tenofovir Concentrations Correlate With Plasma and Relate to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Adherence: A Randomized, Directly Observed Pharmacokinetic Trial (TARGET Study).

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2019-07-18)
Paul K Drain, Rachel W Kubiak, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Suriyan Tanasri, Pimpinun Punyati, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey, Peter Bacchetti, Hideaki Okochi, Jared M Baeten, Monica Gandhi, Tim R Cressey
RESUMEN

Direct measurement of tenofovir (TFV) in urine could be an objective measure to monitor adherence to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or TFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a 3-arm randomized, pharmacokinetic study of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg/emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus. Participants were randomized to receive controlled TDF/FTC dosing as (1) "perfect" adherence (daily); (2) "moderate" adherence (4 doses/week); or (3) "low" adherence (2 doses/week). We obtained trough spot urine and plasma samples during a 6-week directly observed therapy period and a 4-week washout period. TFV concentrations were compared between adherence arms using 1-way analysis of variance. Among 28 participants, the median age was 33 years and 16 (57%) were male. Correlation between TFV plasma and urine concentrations was strong (ρ = 0.78; P < .0001). Median (interquartile range) steady-state trough TFV concentrations (ng/mL) for perfect, moderate, and low TDF adherence were 41 (26-52), 16 (14-19), and 4 (3-5) in plasma; and 6480 (3940-14 300), 3405 (2210-5020), and 448 (228-675) in urine. Trough TFV concentrations at steady state were significantly different between the 3 adherence arms for plasma (P < .0001) and urine (P = .0002). Following drug cessation, TFV concentrations persisted longer in urine than plasma samples. Washout urine TFV concentrations and time to undetectable concentrations did not differ between the 3 randomized adherence groups. Urine TFV concentrations can inform interpretation of novel point-of-care urine-based TFV assays to assess recent TDF adherence. NCT03012607

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Sigma-Aldrich
Fumitremorgin C, from Neosartorya fischeri, film