Activation of the RAS pathway through uncommon BRAF mutations in mucinous pancreatic cysts without KRAS mutation.

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc (2020-08-15)
Rongqin Ren, Somashekar G Krishna, Wei Chen, Wendy L Frankel, Rulong Shen, Weiqiang Zhao, Matthew R Avenarius, Jason Garee, Sean Caruthers, Dan Jones

Diagnostic testing of pancreatic cyst fluid obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has traditionally utilized elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (≥192 ng/ml) and cytomorphologic examination to differentiate premalignant mucinous from benign pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). Molecular testing for KRAS/GNAS mutations has been shown to improve accuracy of detecting mucinous PCLs. Using a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, we assess the status of PCL-associated mutations to improve understanding of the key diagnostic variables. Molecular analysis of cyst fluid was performed on 108 PCLs that had concurrent CEA and/or cytological analysis. A 48-gene NGS assay was utilized, which included genes commonly mutated in mucinous PCLs such as GNAS, KRAS, CDKN2A, and TP53. KRAS and/or GNAS mutations were seen in 59 of 68 (86.8%) cases with multimodality diagnosis of a mucinous PCL. Among 31 patients where surgical histopathology was available, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of NGS for the diagnosis of mucinous PCL was 88.5%, 100%, and 90.3%, respectively. Cytology with mucinous/atypical findings were found in only 29 of 62 cases (46.8%), with fluid CEA elevated in 33 of 58 cases (56.9%). Multiple KRAS mutations at different variant allele frequencies were seen in seven cases favoring multiclonal patterns, with six of them showing at least two separate PCLs by imaging. Among the 6 of 10 cases with GNAS + /KRAS- results, uncommon, non-V600E exon 11/15 hotspot BRAF mutations were identified. The expected high degree of accuracy of NGS detection of KRAS and/or GNAS mutations for mucinous-PCLs, as compared with CEA and cytological examination, was demonstrated. Multiple KRAS mutations correlated with multifocal cysts demonstrated by radiology. In IPMNs that lacked KRAS mutations, the concurring BRAF mutations with GNAS mutations supports an alternate mechanism of activation in the Ras pathway.

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2-Chloroethyl acrylate, contains >100 ppm MEHQ as inhibitor, 97%