Potato virus Y (PVY), the type member of the genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae), is the most widespread virus affecting potato and is included in the top five most economically detrimental plant viruses. Recently, the structure of the PVY virion has been determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which has opened the doors to functional studies that explore the involvement of selected amino acids in different stages of the viral cycle. The only way to functionally challenge in planta the role of particular amino acids in the coat protein of PVY, or in other viral proteins, is by using cDNA clones. The use and manipulation of PVY cDNA clones, unlike those of other potyviruses, has been traditionally impaired by the toxicity that certain sequences within the PVY genome pose to Escherichia coli. Here, we describe the use of a published PVY cDNA clone, which harbours introns that overcome the aforementioned toxicity, to explore the effects of different coat protein modifications on viral infection. The protocol includes manipulation of the cDNA clone in E. coli, biolistic inoculation of plants with the constructed clones, observation of the biological effects on plants, quantification of cDNA clones by reverse transcription quantitative PCR, and confirmation of virion formation by transmission electron microscopy. Future possibilities involve the use of PVY cDNA clones tagged with fluorescent protein reporters to allow further insights into the effects of coat protein mutations on the cell-to-cell movement of PVY virions.