The therapeutic effects of bone marrow and hepatocyte transplantation were investigated regarding the treatment of retrorsine-partial hepatectomy-induced liver injury. Analbuminemic F344alb rats were given two doses of retrorsine 2 wk apart, followed 4 wk later by transplantation with F344 rat bone marrow cells or hepatocytes immediately after a two-thirds hepatectomy. The survival rate, liver regeneration rate, liver functions, albumin-positive hepatocytes, and normal albumin gene sequences in the liver and serum albumin levels were investigated in the recipients. Although 65% retrorsine/partial hepatectomy-treated F344alb died between 1 and 11 d after the partial hepatectomy, only 27.5% of the animals died following bone marrow transplantation, and 50% with hepatocyte transplantation. Both bone marrow and hepatocyte transplantation ameliorated acute liver injury after a partial hepatectomy. Bone marrow transplantation yielded a very small increase in the number of albumin-positive hepatocytes in the liver, while hepatocyte transplantation resulted in massive replacement of the liver tissues by the donor hepatocytes associated with an elevation of serum albumin after an extended time. Both bone marrow and hepatocyte transplantation could prevent acute hepatic injury, conceivably due to a paracrine mechanism.