6-Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NBaP) occurs in the environment, is mutagenic in the Ames assay in the presence of added S9 and is carcinogenic to male but not female mouse liver when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into mice. In order to understand what kinds of active metabolites could have been produced in vivo, both male and female mice were injected i.p. with 6-NBaP in dimethyl sulfoxide. Twenty-four hours after injection, urine, feces, blood, liver and spleen (non-target tissue) were examined for metabolites by chromatographic and high-resolution mass spectral means. On the basis of the mass spectral fragmentation patterns of synthetic and metabolic standards, it was observed that both male and female animals excreted ring-hydroxylated metabolites of 6-NBaP in the urine to differing extents. Male animals additionally excreted 6-aminobenzo[a]pyrene and the significance of this observation is discussed.