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Physico-chemical characterization and the in vitro genotoxicity of medical implants metal alloy (TiAlV and CoCrMo) and polyethylene particles in human lymphocytes.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2013-10-22)
Goran Gajski, Zelimir Jelčić, Višnja Oreščanin, Marko Gerić, Robert Kollar, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
RESUMEN

The main objective of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and possible cyto/genotoxic potential of several medical implant materials commonly used in total hip joint replacement. Medical implant metal alloy (Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo) and high density polyethylene particles were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry while toxicological characterization was done on human lymphocytes using multi-biomarker approach. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed that none of the elements identified deviate from the chemical composition defined by appropriate ISO standard. Toxicological characterization showed that the tested materials were non-cyto/genotoxic as determined by the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Particle morphology was found (by using scanning electron and optical microscope) as flat, sharp-edged, irregularly shaped fiber-like grains with the mean particle size less than 10µm; this corresponds to the so-called "submicron wear". The very large surface area per wear volume enables high reactivity with surrounding media and cellular elements. Although orthopedic implants proved to be non-cyto/genotoxic, in tested concentration (10μg/ml) there is a constant need for monitoring of patients that have implanted artificial hips or other joints, to minimize the risks of any unwanted health effects. The fractal and multifractal analyses, performed in order to evaluate the degree of particle shape effect, showed that the fractal and multifractal terms are related to the "remnant" level of the particles' toxicity especially with the cell viability (trypan blue method) and total number of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds as CBMN assay parameters.

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