To assess urine composition in Chinese patients with urolithiasis. Five hundred seven Chinese patients with urolithiasis from our center in southern China were included in this study. Analysis of stone composition was performed using infrared spectrometry. From all patients, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of urinary variables. Some ion activity product risk indices were also calculated. The major stone constituents in the 507 analyzed stones were as follows: calcium oxalate (78.3%), infection stone components (14.6%), uric acid (3.6%), and calcium phosphate (3.4%). Only 1 stone was composed of cystine (0.2%). Of all patients, 504 (99.4%) had 1 or several urinary metabolic abnormalities. Hypocitraturia was recorded in 93.9%, high sodium excretion in 58.6%, small urine volume in 45.6%, hyperoxaluria in 31.0%, hypercalciuria in 26.0%, hyperuricosuria in 19.3%, and hyperphosphaturia in 2.8%. Moreover, high sodium excretion was more frequent in men than women (59.2% vs 49.3%, P = .027), whereas hypercalciuria was more common in women (34.5% vs 20.4%, P <.001). High levels of urine sodium (187.7 ± 86.9 vs 179.8 ± 107.7 mmol/24h, P = .038) and phosphate (18.26 ± 8.36 vs 15.69 ± 11.14 mmol/24h, P <.001) were found in men than in women. Infection stones were significantly (P <.004) more common in women. Compared with noninfection stone formers, the occurrence of hypomagnesuria (P = .040) was more common in patients with infection stones. The results of urinary risk factors for stone formation in this study might serve as a basis for design of recurrence prevention. It is of interest to note that some of the demonstrated abnormalities differ from that in reports from other countries.