The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.