Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), promoting vasoconstriction, smooth muscle proliferation, and inflammation. This study sought to test the hypothesis that nebivolol, a β1-antagonist and β2,3-agonist, may improve PAH and reverse the PAH-related phenotype of pulmonary ECs (P-EC). We compared the effects of nebivolol with metoprolol, a first-generation β1-selective β-blocker, on human cultured PAH and control P-EC proliferation, vasoactive and proinflammatory factor production, and crosstalk with PA smooth muscle cells. We assessed the effects of both β-blockers in precontracted PA rings. We also compared the effects of both β-blockers in experimental PAH. PAH P-ECs overexpressed the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, fibroblast growth factor-2, and the potent vasoconstrictive agent endothelin-1 as compared with control cells. This pathological phenotype was corrected by nebivolol but not metoprolol in a dose-dependent fashion. We confirmed that PAH P-EC proliferate more than control cells and stimulate more PA smooth muscle cell mitosis, a growth abnormality that was normalized by nebivolol but not by metoprolol. Nebivolol but not metoprolol induced endothelium-dependent and nitric oxide-dependent relaxation of PA. Nebivolol was more potent than metoprolol in improving cardiac function, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and inflammation of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Nebivolol could be a promising option for the management of PAH, improving endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right heart function. Until clinical studies are undertaken, however, routine use of β-blockers in PAH cannot be recommended.