Merck

Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (2014-09-16)
Miina Ruokolainen, Minna Valkonen, Tiina Sikanen, Tapio Kotiaho, Risto Kostiainen
RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards.

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Methyltestosterone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Sodium hydroxide, pellets, semiconductor grade, 99.99% trace metals basis
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Sodium hydroxide, ACS reagent, ≥97.0%, pellets
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Methanol, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
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Ammonium acetate, ACS reagent, ≥97%
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Methanol, BioReagent, ≥99.93%
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Acetonitrile solution, contains 0.035 % (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, suitable for HPLC
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Acetic acid solution, suitable for HPLC
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Acetic acid, glacial, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
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Sodium hydroxide, reagent grade, 97%, flakes
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Sodium phosphate monobasic-16O4, 99.9 atom % 16O
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