To confirm the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for bone regeneration, BMP-2-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin (Gel)-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) fibrous scaffolds were fabricated using the electrospinning method. The electrospinning process to incorporate BCP nanoparticles into the PCL-Gel scaffolds yielded an extracellular matrix-like microstructure that was a hybrid system composed of nano- and micro-sized fibers. BMP-2 was homogeneously loaded on the PCL-Gel-BCP scaffolds for enhanced induction of bone growth. BMP-2 was initially released at high levels, and then showed sustained release behavior for 31 days. Compared with the PCL-Gel-BCP scaffold, the BMP-2-loaded PCL-Gel-BCP scaffold showed improved cell proliferation and cell adhesion behavior. Both scaffold types were implanted in rat skull defects for 4 and 8 weeks to evaluate the biological response under physiological conditions. Remarkable bone regeneration was observed in the BMP-2/PCL-Gel-BCP group. These results suggest that BMP-2-loaded PCL-Gel-BCP scaffolds should be considered for potential bone tissue engineering applications.
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