Innate Multigene Family Memories Are Implicated in the Viral-Survivor Zebrafish Phenotype.

PloS one (2015-08-14)
Amparo Estepa, Julio Coll
RESUMEN

Since adaptive features such as memory were discovered in mammalian innate immunity, interest in the immunological status of primitive vertebrates after infections has grown. In this context, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio), a primitive vertebrate species suited to molecular and genetic studies to explore transcriptional memories of the immune system in long-term survivors of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus infections. Immune-gene targeted microarrays designed in-house, multipath genes, gene set enrichment, and leading-edge analysis, reveal unexpected consistent correlations between the viral-survivor phenotype and several innate multigene families. Thus, here we describe in survivors of infections the upregulation of the multigene family of proteasome subunit macropains, zebrafish-specific novel gene sets, mitogen activated protein kinases, and epidermal growth factor. We also describe the downregulation of the multigene families of c-reactive proteins, myxovirus-induced proteins and novel immunoglobulin-type receptors. The strength of those immunological memories was reflected by the exceptional similarity of the transcriptional profiles of survivors before and after re-infection compared with primary infected fish. On the other hand, the high levels of neutralizing antibodies in the blood plasma of survivors contrasted with the depletion of transcripts specific for most cell types present in lymphoid organs. Therefore, long-term survivors maintained unexpected molecular/cellular memories of previous viral encounters by modulating the expression levels of innate multigene families as well as having specific adaptive antibodies. The implications of the so-called "trained immunity" for future research in this field are also discussed.

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